2007年01月24日

The road to Open Society

「人間的でありたいと願う以上、我々のとるべき道は唯一つ、開放社会(Open society)への道しかない。我々は未知、不確実、不安の社会へ行かなくてはならない。
安全と自由の両方を求めて計画を立てる、どんな理由を用いようとも」カールポパー

SOXやら内部統制やら情報セキュリティとは、不必要で無意味な確実さと安心を求めて国家統制によるClosed societyに驀進する道だ。



2007年01月24日
posted by libertarian at 15:17| Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Karl Popper | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2006年12月26日

Popper and its enemies

今の55歳当たりから上の世代の言論人は、全学連〜全共闘世代の影響に育っており、所詮はどう頑張ってみても社会民主主義的な発想から抜けられないようだ。学校の悪影響というのは恐ろしいものである。自称の自由市場論者といっても、所詮は社会民主主義者の枠組みをでないのだ。



しかしこの世代は官庁や大学などでも要職にありかなりの影響力を持っているために性質が悪い。

池田信夫さんなどは影響力はあまりないかもしれないが、この世代の典型といえるだろう。

碌にポパーを読んだこともないだろうに、解説書だけ読んで分かったようなことを言っているのにはあきれ果てる。村上陽一郎辺りのくだらない解説書を読んで分かったつもりになっているだけだろう。まあポパーを仮に読んでいたとしても何も読めていないのだろうが。



ポパーについてここで”正しい読み方”を解説するつもりも能力も時間も私はないが、ポパーほどに通俗的な誤解を受けている人間は少ないかもしれない。”Falsifiability”もその典型だ。

あのハイエクがポパーの通俗的に誤解されている意味での反証可能性理論なるものに共鳴をしたとでも思っているのだろうか?

ハイエクもポパーも日本ではまだ全く理解されていないといってよい真の自由主義思想家といえよう。



ちなみにこの傾向は日本だけではない。本家のイギリスでも大体同じような状況だろう。ただ議論のレベルは日本で行われているものとは次元が違う。というか日本では議論が全くないし、理解している人間があまりに少ない。

ポパーのメイリングリストにはイギリスがメインでcritical cafeとかいろいろあるが、社会民主主義者と科学者とが入り混じってポパーに対するアホらしい悪口をエンドレスで言っているのだが、その誤解を解こうとする少数のリバタリアンがいるという図式となっている。とはいえ、頭数と口数の多さと頑固さでは左翼の方が圧倒的だから常に平行線で終わるのである。日本では村上陽一郎のおかげでポール ファイヤアーベントのような左派科学史家が異様に高く評価されているが、実際はファイヤアーベントの議論など屁みたいなものなのだ。

ファイアーアーベントの言論がポパーに対して勝ったのどうのというレベルとはあちらのまともな人間からは全く思われていないのである。

同様にトマスクーンのパラダイム論もつまらないアイデアだ。こういった連中とポパーでは格が違いすぎるのである。
posted by libertarian at 13:17| Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Karl Popper | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2004年11月13日

Karl Popper and Friedrich Hayek:an Interview with Jeremy Shearmur

[http://freedom.orlingrabbe.com/lfetimes/shearmur.htm]

Karl Popper and Friedrich Hayek:

an Interview with Jeremy Shearmur

by Alberto Mingardi



このインタビューは、非常に有用だ。



Insofar as Hayek became more systematically classical liberal or libertarian as he got older, there were real differences between them; but these were not explicitly explored. Indeed, I think that Popper always tended to take a reading of Hayek that served to minimize some of the real political differences between them. (Popper, too, became more of a liberal as he got older, but he was always much more of a statist and a critical rationalist, and was never, systematically, a classical liberal.) It seems to me that among those influenced by Popper, there has developed a real division, so that I, and some others who favor classical liberalism are sharply at odds with others (e.g. Bryan Magee) who treat Popper's thought much more as a theory of social democracy.
posted by libertarian at 08:58| Comment(0) | Karl Popper | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2004年09月30日

The Rathouse.com

Rafe ChampionさんのHomePage

[http://www.therathouse.com]



Rafeさんのサイト

PopperとHayekなどに関する良質な記事が沢山載っている。
posted by libertarian at 14:29| Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Karl Popper | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

The Poverty of Historicism.

これもRafeさんのメールから



This is the last post in the series on The Poverty of Historicism.



On the difference between the generalizing sciences and the historical

sciences, Popper considered that the account which he expounded, following

Max Weber, clarified the controversies between some schools of thought:



"One historicist group asserts that history, which does not merely enumerate

facts but attempts to present them in some form of causal connection, must

be interested in the formulation of historical laws, since causality means,

fundamentally, determination by law. Another group, which also includes

historicists, argues that even unique events, events which occur only once

and have nothing general about them, may be the cause of other events, and

that is the kind of causation that history is interested in. We can now see

that both groups are partly right and partly wrong. Universal law and

specific events are together necessary for any causal explanation, but

outside the theoretical sciences, universal laws arouse little interest"

(146).



Section 31. Situational logic in history. Historical interpretation



Popper went on to consider the need that historicism filled, which he identified (with reference

to Tolstoy's War and Peace) as the need to find some alternative to

historical accounts focussed on Great Men. "Spirits or tendencies of the Age" were invoked as a corrective to the Great Man theories but these are equally unhelpful.



"It is the task of sociology to fill [the gap] with something more sensible, such as an analysis of the problems arising within a tradition. There is room for a more detailed analysis of the logic of situations. The best historians have often made use of this conception: Tolstoy, for example, when he describeds how it was not decision but 'neccessity' which made the Russian army yield Moscow without a fight and withdraw to places where it could find food. Beyond this logic of the situation, or perhaps as a part of it, we need something like an analysis of social movements. We need studies, based on methodological individualism, of the social institutions through which ideas may spread and captivate individuals, of the way in which new traditions may be created, and of the way in which traditions work and break down. In other words, our individualistic and institutionalistic models of such collective entities as nations, or governments, or markets, will have to be supplemented by models of political situations as well as of social movements such as scientific and industrial progress. These models may then be used by historians, partly like the other models, and partly for the purpose of explanation, along with the other universal laws they use." (149)
posted by libertarian at 13:34| Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Karl Popper | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

AGAINST PSYCHOLOGISM

Rafe Championさんからのメールの引用

K.Popperの心理主義批判の文章



In chapter 14 of OSE 'The Autonomy of Sociology', Popper argued against the idea (which he attributed to J S Mill) that psychology is the foundation of the social sciences.



"We may say that our actions are to a very large extent explicable in terms of the situation in which they occur. Of course, they are never fully explicable in terms of the situation alone; an explanation of the way in which a man, when crossing a street, dodges the cars which move on i may go beyond the situation, and may refer to his motives, to an 'instinct' for selfpreservation, or to his wish to avoid pain, etc.



But this 'psychological' part of the explanation is often very trivial, as compared with the detailed determiniation of his action by what we may call the logic of the situation...this...plays a very important part in social life as well as in the social sciences.



It is, in fact, the method of economic analysis. As an example outside economics, I refer to the 'logic of power' [citing Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli and Pareto], which we may use in order to explain the moves in power politics as well as the working of certain political institutions.



The method...is not based on any psychological assumption concerning the rationality (or otherwise) of 'human nature'. On the contrary: when we speak of 'rational behaviour' or of 'irrational behaviour' then we mean behaviour which is, or which is not, in accordance with the logic of that situation. "



"My arguments against psychologism should not be misunderstood. They are not, of course, intended to show that psychological studies and discoveries are of little importance for the social scientist.



They mean, rather, that psychology the psychology of the individual is one of the social sciences, even though it is not the basis of all social science" (97).
posted by libertarian at 13:26| Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Karl Popper | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2004年08月27日

Three Worlds

[http://www.tannerlectures.utah.edu/lectures/popper80.pdf]

Three Worlds

KARL POPPER



THE TANNER LECTURE ON HUMAN VALUES

Delivered at

The University of Michigan

April 7, 1978
posted by libertarian at 22:25| Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Karl Popper | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2004年08月08日

Remembering Karl Popper





[http://wwwhoover.stanford.edu/publications/digest/001/turner.html]

HOOVER DIGEST

2000 No. 1



Piers Norris Turner



Remembering Karl Popper



A reflection on the life of former Hoover fellow Karl Popper, one of the past century’s greatest thinkers.
posted by libertarian at 13:44| Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Karl Popper | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする